Faraid of Tayammum
There are three Faraid in Tayammum:
- Wiping hands on the entire face.
- Wiping both arms including the elbows. (Bahar-e-Shariat, part 2, P65, Madina-tul-Murshid, Bareily Shari
Ten Sunan of Tayammum
- Reciting بسم اللہ
- Hitting the hands on the ground
- Moving the hands back and forth on the ground
- Keeping gap among the fingers
- Jerking the hands by hitting the base of one thumb against the other but taking caution not to make a clapping sound
- Wiping the face first and then the hands
- Wiping them one after the other without delay
- Wiping the right arm first and then the left arm
- Picking (doing Khilal of) the beard
- Picking (doing Khilal of) the fingers if dust has reached (among the fingers). If dust has not reached e.g. if hands were hit (for Tayammum) on stone etc. carrying no dust, Khilal of the fingers is Fard. There is no need to hit the hands on the ground again for Khilal. (Bahar-e-Shariat, part 2, P67, Madina-tul-Murshid, Bareilly Sharif)
Method of Tayammum (Hanafi)
Make Niyyat (intention) to erform Tayammum (Niyyat is the name of the intention of heart and pronouncing it verbally is better. For example, make intention in these words: I am performing Tayammum to purify myself from impurity and to make myself eligible for offering Salah). Read بسم اللہ and, with fingers spread wide open, hit hands on some pure object that is earthen in nature (e.g. stones, limestone, bricks, walls, soil etc.) and drag the hands back and forth on that object. If hands become over-dusty, reduce excessive dust by jerking hands. Wipe entire face with hands such that no art of the face is left unwiped; Tayammum will not be valid if even a part equivalent to a hair is left unwiped. Again hit hands on that object like before and wipe both arms from the fingertips up to (and including) the elbows. A better way to do this is to first wipe right hand with inner side of four fingers of the lift hand, leaving the left thumb, starting from exterior side of fingertips of the the right hand and dragging on exterior side up to the right elbow. Then, wipe with palm of left hand from interior side of right elbow up to the right wrist dragging left palm on interior side. Finally, use the inside of the left thumb to wipe the back of the right thumb. The left arm should be wiped in the same manner using right hand. (Fatawa-e-Tatarkhaniyyah, Vol-1, P227)
And if wiping is done with palm and fingers jointly, Tayammum will still be valid whether traversing is done from fingers towards elbow or vice versa. But this would be contrary to Sunnah. Tayammum does not require wiping of head and feet. (Common books of Islamic Jurisprudence)
Twenty-Five Madani Pearls of Tayammum
- The thing that neither turns into ash nor melts and nor softens on being burnt is classed as earthen and may be used for Tayammum. Tayammum is allowed with sand, limestone, kohl, sulphur, stone, emerald, and other gems, regardless of whether or not dust is present on them. (Al-Bahr-ur-Raaiq, Vol-1, P256)
- Tayammum is allowed with pots made up of baked bricks, orcelain or clay. However, Tayammum will not be allowed if they are coated with a layer of non=earthen material e.g. glass. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, Vol-1, P27)
- The dust, stone etc, that is being used for Tayammum must be pure i.e. there should be no traces of impurity on it. Further, even if the impression of impurity had disappeared due to evaporation, it is not allowable for Tayammum. (ibid, pp. 357) If a peice of land, a wall, or mud on the ground becomes stained with impurity but the stain then dreis and vanishes due to the blowing of the wind or the heat of the sun, they are considered pure for Salah, but cannot be used for Tayammum.
- Mere suspicion that it may have been impure is useless and not applicable. (ibid, pp. 357)
- A piece of wood, cloth, carpet etc. can be used for Tayammum if it is covered in so much dust that impressions of fingers develop on it on hitting hands. (ibid, pp.359)
- Tayammum is permissible from lime, mud or brick wall of Masjid or home provided it is not coated with oil paint, plastic paint, matte finish, wall paper or something which is non-earthen. If marble is fittedon wall, it is allowable for Tayammum.
- If Wudu or Ghusl is due on somebody and water is not in his reach, he may perform Tayammum in the place of Wudu and Ghusl. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 346, vol. 1)
- If there is a true fear that Wudu or Ghusl would intensify or prolong the illness, or it has been personal experience that whenever Wudu or Ghusl was performed, the illness intensified or,similarly, any good and capable Muslim doctor who is not Fasiq (one who does not follow obligatory religious rulings) suggests that water will cause harm, Tayammum may be performed in these cases. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 346, vol. 1) (Dur-re-Mukhtar-o-Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 441, 442, vol. 1)
- If water causes harm on bathing from head,take bath from neck and perform wiping of complete head. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 347, vol. 1)
- Tayammum is permissible if presence of water is not known within a radius of one mile, (ibid)
- If Zam Zam water is available in a quantity by which Wudu is possible, Tayammum is not permissible. (ibid)
- If there is severely cold and it is strongly suspected that bathing would result in death or illness; and no means of protection against cold after taking bath is available either, Tayammum is permissible. (ibid, pp. 348)
- If a prisoner is not allowed to perform Wudu, he should perform Tayammum and pray his Salah but repeat this Salah later. If jailers or enemies do not let the prisoner offer prayer, then he has to offer Salah by gestures, and repeat this Salah later on. (ibid, pp. 349)
- If it is suspected that the caravan will go out of sight (or train will leave) because of searching water, Tayammum is permissible. (ibid, 350)
- One was sleeping in the Masjid and Ghusl became Fard (because of nocturnal emission), he should perform Tayammum instantly at the same place. This is the most cautious way. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jad id), pp. 479, vol. 3) He must then instantly leave the Masjid. Any delay is Haram. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 352, vol. 1)
- If the available time for Salah in too short that the Salah would become Qada (i.e. its stipulated time would elapse) in case of making Wudu or Ghusl, perform Tayammum and offer Salah. Then repetition of that Salah in must having performed Wudu / Ghusl. (Fatawa Radawiyyah ( Jad id), pp. 307, vol. 3)
- If a woman whose menses or post-natal bleeding has ended does not have access to water, she has to perform Tayammum. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 352, vol. 1)
- If a person is present at such a place where neither water nor any earthen object is available for Tayammum, he should perform all acts of Salah within that Salah timing without making intention for Salah. ( Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 353, vol. 1) On having access to water or earthen object, that Salah will have to be offered after performing Wudu / Tayammum.
- The method of Tayammum in place of Wudu and Ghusl is same. (Al-Jauharat-un-Nayyirah, pp. 28, vol. 1)
- If Ghusl is due on somebody, he does not need to make Tayammum twice for Wudu and Ghusl; instead he may make intention for both in the same Tayammum and if intention was made for only Ghusl or only Wudu, it is also sufficient. ( Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 354, vol. 1)
- The acts that nullify Wudu or Ghusl will also nullify Tayammum. Access to water will also nullify Tayammum. (ibid, pp. 360)
- If a woman is wearing some jewellery in her nose she must remove it; otherwise the part of the nose beneath the jewellery would not be wiped. (ibid, 355)
- The part of the lips that is visible when the mouth is closed in a natural position (not too tight) must be wiped. If someone shut his mouth so tightly that some part remained un-wiped, Tayammum will not be valid. (ibid) The same ruling applies in case of closing the eyes very tightly. (ibid)
- If one in wearing ring or watch, these must be removed to wipe beneath them. Islamic sisters should move their bangles in order to wipe the skin beneath. More care is to be taken whilst performing Tayammum as compared to Wudu. (ibid)
- If a sick or such a disabled person who does not have hands and legs cannot perform Tayammum himself, somebody else should help him perform Tayammum. In this case, the helping person does not need to make intention; instead, the one being helped in performing Tayammum will have to make his intention. (ibid, 354) (Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, 1982, pp. 26, vol. 1)
Going through the booklets ‘Method of Wudu’ and ‘Method of Salah’ will be useful in learning the rulings concerning Wudu and Salah respectively.
O Allah عز وجل, make us read, understand, and explain to others the ruling of Ghusl over and over again and make us perform Ghusl according to sunnah. Amin!