Seven Faraid of Salah
There are seven Faraid in Salah.
(Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 158-170, vol. 2) (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 507, vol. 1)
In fact, Takbir-e-Tahrimah (also called Takbir-e-Aula) is one of the pre-conditions for Salah but it has also been included in the Faraid because it is closely attached to the acts of Salah. (Ghunyah, pp. 256)
- If the Muqtadi says the word ‘Allah’ of Takbir-e-Tahrimah with the Imam but utters the word ‘Akbar’ before the Imam utters the same word, his Salah will not be valid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 68, vol. 1)
- If the Muqtadi finds the Imam in Ruku’ and bends instantly for Ruku’ uttering the Takbir, i.e. he finishes the Takbir after he had already bent down to such an extent that his hands would touch his knees if he stretched them, his Salah will not be valid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 176, vol. 2) (What he should do on such an occasion is to utter the Takbir-e-Tahrimah whilst standing erect and then do Ruku’ utteringاَللہُ اَکّبَرّ . If he manages to join the Imam in Ruku’ even for a moment, the Rak’at will be counted, but if the Imam stands up before he joins the Imam in Ruku’, the Rak’at will not be counted.)
- If someone is unable to pronounce Takbir because of dumbness of loss of the faculty of speaking due to any other reason, he does not have to utter it; just making intention in heart is sufficient for him. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 220, vol. 2)
- If the word “Allah” is mispronounced as اٰللہ (Allah) or the word اَکّبَر (Akbar) as اٰکبر (Akbar) or اکبار (Akbar), the Salah will be invalid. If anyone deliberately utters any of these words despite understanding their Fasid (wrong) meaning, he will become a Kafir (disbeliever). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 218, vol. 2)
These days, in case of a big Jama’at, most of the Mukabbirs, voluntarily conveying the voice of Takbir to those offering Salah at the back side, are heard mispronouncing the word ‘Akbar’ as ‘Akbar’ due to the lack of religious knowledge. As a result of this mispronunciation, the Salah of such Mukabbirs as well as that of those offering Salah following their Takbirs becomes invalid. Therefore, one should refrain from uttering Takbir without learning necessary rulings.
- If someone performs first Rak’at’s Ruku’ with the Imam, he will gain the Sawab of Takbir-e-Aula. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)
- The least level of Qiyam is that if the hands are stretched, they should not reach knees whereas complete Qiyam is to stand erect.
(Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 163, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 163, vol. 2)
- The duration of Qiyam and that of Qira-at is the same; standing in Qiyam is Fard, Wajid or Sunnah for as long as Fard Qira-at, Wajib Qira-at or Sunnah Qira-at requires respectively. (ibid)
- Qiyam is Fard for Fard, Witr, Eidain and the Sunan of Fajr Salah. If anyone offered any of these Salah sitting without a valid reason, Salah would not be valid. (ibid)
- Feeling just slight pain in standing is not a valid excuse, instead, a person can be exempted from Qiyam when he/she is unable to stand or perform Sajdah or when his wound bleeds due to standing or performing Sajdah or a drop of urine is released, or his quarter Sitr is exposed, or he is quite unable to do Qira-at. Similarly, if a person is able enough to stand, but it will result in the intensity or prolongation of his illness or unbearable pain, he can offer Salah sitting. (Ghunyah, pp. 261-267)
- If it is possible to stand for Qiyam leaning on a staff (crutches) or wall, or by the help of a servant, it is Fard to do so. (Ghunyah, pp. 261)
- If it is possible to utter just Takbir-e-Tahrimah standing, it is Fard to utter اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ whilst standing and then (if it isn’t possible to remain standing anymore), he may sit down. (ibid, pp. 262)
Beware! The people who offer their Fard Salah sitting due to any slight pain, injury etc. should consider the foregoing ruling of Shari’ah; it is Fard to repeat every such Salah offered sitting despite having the strength to stand. Similarly, it is also Fard to repeat all such Salah offered sitting despite the fact that they could have been offered standing by leaning on a staff, wall or with the help of a person. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 511, vol. 1) The same rule applies to women, i.e. they are not allowed to offer Salah sitting without Shar’i permission.
- Some Masajid provide chairs on which some old people sit and offer Salah despite coming to the Masjid on foot, they even talk with others standing after the Salah; if such people offer Salah sitting without Shara’i permission, their Salah will not be valid.
- It is permissible to offer Nafl Salah sitting despite having the strength to stand; however, it is better to offer it standing. Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ narrates that the Prophet of Rahmah, the intercessor of Ummah, the distributor of Na’mah ﷺ said, “The Salah of the one offering in sitting-posture is half of the one offering in standing-posture (the Sawab would be half).” (Sahih Muslim, pp. 370, Hadis 735) However, the Sawab will not be reduced if someone offers it sitting due to any valid reason. Nowadays, the trend of offering Nafl Salah in sitting- posture has developed. People seem to be under the impression that offering these Nafl sitting is better; it is their misconception. The same ruling applies to the two Rak’at Nafl after the Witr (to offer them standing is better). (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 670, vol. 1)
- Qira-at ( Recitation of the Holy Quran )
- Qira-at means ‘pronouncing each and every letter from its correct place of origin so that each letter is quite distinct from every other letter.’ (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)
- Even when reciting in low volume, it is necessary for the recite to hear his voice of recitation. (ibid)
- If the letters are pronounced correctly, but not loud enough for the recite to hear himself (and there is no obstruction such as noise or the problem of hard of hearing either), the Salah will not be valid in this case. (ibid)
- Although it is necessary for the recite to listen to the voice of recitation himself, the sound should not reach others in Sirri Salah (the Salah in which recitation is done in low volume). Similarly, listening to the voice of recitation while reciting Tasbihat etc. is also necessary.
- Likewise, whatever is to be recited or said even other than Salah, it must be recited or said in such a loud voice that the recite or speaker could hear himself; for example, giving a divorce, freeing a slave or mentioning the name of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ when slaughtering an animal. In all these cases, the words must be said loud enough for the recite to hear. (ibid) The same should be kept in mind when reciting Durud Sharif and other Awrads.
- To recite at least one Ayah in the first two Rak’at of a Fard Salah, every Rak’at of Witr, Sunan and Nawafil Salah is Fard for the Imam as well as the Munfarid. (Maraqil Falah. pp. 51)
- A Muqtadi is not allowed to do Qira-at in Salah, neither Sura-e-Fatihah nor any other Ayah; neither in a Sirri Salah nor in a Jahri Salah. The Qira-at of the Imam is sufficient for the Muqtadi. (Maraqil Falah, pp. 51)
- If someone did not do Qira-at in any Rak’at of Fard Salah or did Qira-at only in one Rak’at, his Salah would be invalid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)
- One should recite the Quran slowly in Fard Salah and, at a medium pace, in Tarawih. Fast recitation in Nawafil of the night is permissible, however, the words should be clearly understandable, i.e. the Maddat should be pronounced with at least the minimum degree of length set by Qurra, otherwise, it is Haram, because we have been commanded to recite the Quran with Tartil (slowly). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 320, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 320, vol. 2)
These days, most of the Huffaz recite in such a way that not to speak of maintaining the length of Mad; one cannot understand any word except یَعؔلَمُونَ ، تَعّلَمُونَ , they do not pronounce the letters properly, they even miss out words. Even worse, they boast amongst others about their speed of recitation. Reciting the Quran in such a manner is strictly Haram. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 547, vol. 1)
Correct Pronunciation of Alphabets is Essential
Most of the people are unable to distinguish between the sounds of ت ط، س ص ث ، ا ء ع، ہ ح ، د ض ذ ظ ۔ Remember, if the meaning of a word becomes Fasid (wrong) as a result of changing the sound of letter, Salah will not be valid. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 125, part. 3)
For example, if someone says عَزِیّم instead of عَظِیم (with a ز instead of a ظ) in سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّعَظِیّم , his Salah will become invalid. Therefore, if someone cannot utter عَظِیّم properly, he should utter سٗبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّکَرِیّم instead. (Qanun-e-Shari’at, pp. 105, part. 1) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 242, vol. 2)
Just a little practice is not enough for the one unable to pronounce letters correctly; he must practice hard day and night. If such a person can offer Salah led by the Imam reciting correctly, it is Fard for him to do so, or he must recite only such Ayahs that he can recite correctly. If both the aforementioned cases are impossible, his own Salah will be valid during his learning period. Regretfully, these days a lot of people have this shortcoming. They do not know how to recite the Quran correctly and do not try to learn either. Remember, this ruins Salah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 570, vol. 1)
If someone could not correct his pronunciation is spite of making every possible effort day and night (as some people are unable to pronounce the letters properly) he must keep practicing day and night, in this case, he will be considered excused during his learning-period. His own Salah will be valid but he cannot lead the Salah of those who can recite correctly, however, during his learning period, he can lead the Salah of those who cannot correctly pronounce such letters that he is also unable to pronounce correctly. But if he does not make any effort at all, so even his own Salah will not be valid, how can others’ Salah be valid under his Imamat. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jad id). Pp. 254, vol. 6)
Dear Islamic brothers! You may have realized the importance of Qira-at. Indeed, extremely unfortunate is the Muslim who does not learn correct recitation of the Holy Quran. اَلحَمدُلِلّٰہ عَزَّوَجَلَّNumerous Madaris by the name of ‘Madrasa-tul-Madinah’ have been established by Dawat-e-Islami, the global, non-political, religious movement of the Quran and Sunnah. In these Madaris, girls and boys are taught Hifz and Nazirah Quran free of cost.
Moreover, the correct pronunciations of letters as well as Sunnahs are taught to the adults usually after Sala-tul-‘Isha in Masajid. Would that everyone starts teaching and learning the Holy Quran in their homes! Would that every such Islamic brother able enough to recite the Quran correctly starts teaching other Islamic brothers! Likewise, the Islamic sisters who can recite correctly should teach others and those who cannot recite properly should learn from them. اِن شَاۤءَاللہ عَزَّوَجَلَّ, Quranic teachings will prevail everywhere and those learning and teaching will earn great Sawab, اِن شَاۤءَاللہ عَزَّوَجَلَّ.
The least level of Ruku’ is to bend forward to such an extent that if hands are stretched, they should reach the knees while complete Ruku’ is to keep the back horizontally straight. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 165, vol. 2) (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 513, vol. 1)
The beloved Rasul of Allah ﷺ said, “Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ does not see (mercifully) at such a Salah of the person in which he does not straighten his between Ruku’ and Sujud.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 617, vol. 3, Hadis 10803)
- The beloved Rasul of Allah ﷺ said, “I have been commanded to perform Sajdah on seve bones: (i) the face, (ii & iii) both hands, (iv & v) both knees and (vi & vii) finger-ser of both feet; I have (also) been commanded not to fold my clothes and hair. (Sahih Muslim, pp. 253, Hadis 490)
- Two Sujud are Fard in each Rak’at. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 513, vol. 1)
- It is necessary that the forehead properly rests on the ground. Resting of forehead means hardness of the ground should be felt. If someone performed Sajdah in such a way that his forehead did not properly rest on the ground, Sajdah would not be valid. (ibid, pp. 513, 514)
- In case of performing Sajdah on something soft such as grass, wool or a carpet, if the forehead firmly rests onto it, i.e. it is pressed so hard that it cannot be pressed any more, Sajdah will be valid, otherwise, not. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 70, vol. 1)
- These days, the trend of using carpets in Masajid has developed (in some Masajid foam is also spread underneath the carpets). While performing Sajdah on a carpet, make it sure that the forehead firmly rests, otherwise Salah will not be valid. If the nasal bone did not rest on the ground properly, the Salah will be Makruh-e-Tahrimi and it would be Wajid to repeat such a Salah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 514, vol. 1, etc.)
- As the forehead does not properly rest on a spring mattress, Salah will not be valid on it. (ibid)
Disadvantages of Carpets
It is difficult to perform Sajdah properly on the carpet; carpets cannot easily be cleaned either. Therefore, dust and germs accumulate inside them. In Sajdah, dust and germs enter the body by means of breathing. Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ forbid, the fluff of carpet, in case of sticking to the lungs as result of inhaling, could give rise to the danger of cancer. Sometimes, children vomit or urinate on the carpet; similarly, cats, rats and lizards also excrete on them. In case of carpet’s being impure, it is not even bothered to purify it. Would that the trend of using carpets in Masajid die out!
How to Purify an Impure Carpet
Wash the impure area of the carpet and hang it; let it remain hanging till the drops of water stop dripping from it. Then, wash and hang it for the second time and let it remain hanging until it stops dripping. Then, wash and hang it for the third time in the same way, it will become pure when it stops dripping. Purify mats, shoes and such clay pots that absorb water according to the same method.
Another way of purifying impure carpet, cloth etc. is to keep it dipped into flowing water (for example, a river, stream, or under a tap) for the amount of time till one gets the strong probability that the impurity has been carried away by the water. If a small child urinates on a carpet, just splashing a few drops of water onto it will not purify it. Remember, the urine of even one day’s old infant is impure. (For detailed information, go through Bahar-e-Shari’at volume one, page. 396-405)
After the completion of all Rak’at of Salah, it is Fard to sit in Qa’dah for the amount of time in which complete Tashahhud (اَلتَّحِیَّات) up to ورسولُہٗ is recited. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 70, vol. 1) If the Musalli offering a four-Rak’at Fard Salah did not perform Qa’dah after the fourth Rak’at and has not yet performed the Sajdah of the fifth Rak’at, he has to sit down. However, if he has performed the Sajdah of the fifth Rak’at (or in case of Fajr, did not sit after two Rak’at and did the Sajdah of the third Rak’at or in case of Maghrib, did not sit after the third Rak’at and did the Sajdah of the fourth Rak’at), the Fard Salah will become invalid in all these cases. In these cases, he should add one more Rak’at except Maghrib Salah. (Ghunyah, pp. 290)
Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi i.e. after the Qa’dah-e-Akhirah, deliberately saying Salam, talking or any other such act that finishes the Salah. However, if any other deliberate act except Salam was found, repeating such a Salah will be Wajib, and if any such act was found without intention, the Salah will become invalid. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 516, vol. 1)